Blanche Calloway (February 9, 1904 - December 16, 1978) was a Jazz singer, bandleader, and composer from Baltimore, Maryland. She is not as well known as her younger brother Cab Calloway, but she may have been the first woman to lead an all male orchestra. Cab Calloway often credited her with being the reason he got into show business. She made her first recordings in 1925, with Louis Armstrong as a sideman on the session.

She recorded with a number of groups from the late 1920s through 1935, recording with Ruben Reeves and his River Boys in 1929 and fronting the Andy Kirk band briefly before forming Blanche Calloway and Her Joy Boys (with several members of that organization). In 1938 she disbanded the orchestra and worked as a solo act. In 1939 she converted to the Church of Christ, Scientist

From the 1950s through the 1970s, she worked as a disc jockey and later program director at WMBM in Florida.

Calloway was a popular singer and bandleader during the 1930s. She studied music at Morgan State College before dropping out to pursue a career in show business. Her big break came in 1923 when offered a part in a musical touring company. Her vocal talents quickly made her a spotlight entertainer, and she began working nightclubs across the country. In the mid- and late 1920s she recorded for Okeh and Vocalion, including a 1925 session with Louis Armstrong. She also worked with her brother, noted entertainer and bandleader Cab Calloway,

In 1931, while performing at the Pearl Theatre in Philadelphia, Blanche was heard by bandleader Andy Kirk. Kirk asked her to sing with his outfit, the Clouds of Joy. While touring with the orchestra she quickly found herself the featured attraction. Watching her popularity soar she made an attempt to steal leadership of the group from Kirk. When Kirk figured out the plot he quickly dumped her.

Still determined to have her own orchestra, Blanche found an ally in Kirk trumpet player Edgar ''Puddin Head'' Battle, who helped her put together a group. Called Blanche Calloway and Her Joy Boys, the band at times included Ben Webster and Cozy Cole. It later changed its name to Blanche Calloway and Her Orchestra. She was the first black woman to front an all-male orchestra. Considered one of the best African-American outfits in the country, the group toured and recorded for RCA Victor, finally disbanding in 1938 due to financial difficulties.

Blanche continued performing solo but found her audience shrinking. In 1940 she put together an all-female orchestra, which soon disbanded due to lack of bookings. Blanche retired from show business in 1944. In the early 1950s she managed a nightclub in Washington, DC, where she is credited with discovering R&B singer Ruth Brown. In the 1960s she worked as a disc jockey in Miami and operated a mail-order hair care business. Blanche Calloway passed away in 1978 after a battle with breast cancer.